The transportation sector is a strong factor in terms of economic and regional balanced development, as well as also having a great influence on national integration to the world economic market.
Ports constitute an important economic activity in coastal areas. The higher the throughput of goods and passengers year-on-year, the more infrastructure, provisions and associated services are required. These will bring varying degrees of benefits to the economy and to the country.
Ports are also important for the support of economic activities in the hinterland since they act as a crucial connection between sea and land transport.
As a supplier of jobs, ports do not only serve an economic but also a social function.
In terms of load carried, seaway transportation is the cheapest and most effective transportation system compared to other systems. Industries require a safe and cheap means of exporting finished goods and importing raw materials.
Hence the majority of industries in the world are located in the coastal belts, in the vicinity of major ports. These industries in turn, influence the lives of the employees and indirect benefactors. This report seeks to study the role played by ports in the development of a nation.
Kilindini Harbor is a large, natural deep water inlet extending inland from Mombasa , Kenya. It is 25–30 fathoms of 46–55 meters at its deepest center, although the controlling depth is the outer channel in the port approaches with a dredged depth of 17.5 m (57 ft).It serves as the harbor our for Mombasa , with a hinterland extending to Uganda .
Kilindini Harbor is the main part of the Port of Mombasa, the only international seaport in Kenya and the biggest port in east Africa . It is managed by the Kenya Port Authority (KPA). Apart from cargo handling, Mombasa is frequented by cruise ships .
Kilindini is an old Swahili term that means “deep”. The port is so-called because the channel is naturally very deep. Kilindini Harbor is an example of a natural geographic phenomenon called a ria, formed millions of years ago when the sea level rose and engulfed a river that was flowing from the mainland.
Mombasa has a centuries-old history as a harbor city. The Kilindini harbor was inaugurated in 1896 when work started on the construction of the Uganda railway .
During world war 11, while Kenya was a British colony, Kilindini became the temporary base of the British Eastern fleet from early 1942 until the Japanese naval threat to Colombo , Ceylon (now Sri lanka) had been removed. Nearby, the Far East combined Bureau , an outstation of the British code-breaking operation at Bletchley park, was housed in a requisitioned school (Allidina Visram High School, Mombasa) and had success in breaking Japanese naval codes.
On 29 August 2013, expansion of the port enabled it to handle Panamax Vessels. The project was launched in July 2011 at a cost of $82.15 million by the Kenyan Government and was carried out by China roads and Bridge corporation .
A new berth, Berth 19, with 6.1 ha (15 acres) of stacking yard, has provided additional annual capacity of 200,000 TEU. The project is to increase the port throughput by 33 percent, consolidating the leading status of Mombasa as well as Kenya in East Africa.
There are numerous expectations by the public sector, which is often providing substantial capital investments (through the port authority or general funds), to see concrete and measurable economic impacts and benefits resulting from these investments.
However, the existing literature is relatively scarce about the formal impacts of ports on regional development. Evidence is usually related to a single port over a narrow range of impacts, making general assessments difficult to infer.
Economic impacts concern the wide range of changes brought by infrastructure investment projects, while economic benefits tend to be directly measurable impacts in terms of monetary value. However, many of these impacts can only be observed after the investments have been made and the benefits measured. A forecasting exercise is hazardous and commonly leads to inaccurate assessments. Port forecast models are rarely accurate. The bottom line is that the estimation of the economic impacts of port investments is an inexact field, which focuses on the effectiveness of transport infrastructure as a catalyst for indirect and induced benefits.
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